In summary, this chapter has provided an overview of the biopsychosocial model, with a particular emphasis on the importance of tracing the development of attachments in the personality disordered offender. Tips are provided for enhancing skills in taking a history of the developmental pathway, and a link made with understanding the offending within the context of attachment.

Further reading

Ansbro, M. (2008). Using attachment theory with offenders. The Probation Journal, 55, 231-244.

Craissati, J., Attachment problems and sex offending. In (Eds.) Beech, A., Craig, L., & Browne, K. (2009). Assessment and Treatment of Sex Offenders. P. 1-12. John Wiley & Sons.

De Zulueta, F. (2006). From pain to violence. The traumatic roots of destructiveness. John Wiley & Sons